Treatment

How is India Treating COVID-19?

  • Hydroxychloroquine has been approved as a treatment in mild and moderate cases, and as prophylactic. For dosage and other considerations, click here.
  • Investigational therapies
    • Remdesivir has been approved under emergency use for patients with moderate COVID-19 (those on oxygen). For dosage and other considerations, click here.
    • Under off label use, convalescent plasma may be considered in patients with moderate COVID-19 who are not improving (oxygen requirement is progressively increasing) despite the use of steroids. For dosage and other considerations, click here.
    • Under off label use, Tocilizumab may be considered in patients with moderate COVID-19 who are not improving (progressively increasing oxygen requirements and in mechanical ventilation) despite the use of steroids. For dosage and other considerations, click here.
  • Corticosteroid drugs such as  Methylprednisolone and Dexamethasone have been approved for the clinical management of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19. For dosage and other considerations, click here.
  • Low molecular weight Heparin has been prescribed to prevent blood clots and thrombogenic response. For dosage and other considerations, click here.

For the detailed clinical management treatment protocol, click here.

States

Some of the states followed their own treatment modalities before this recommendation which include

Uttar Pradesh

The UP government has decided to replace Hydroxychloroquine with Ivermectin for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 after the promising results seen in Agra, where it was used on an experimental basis, according to the sources in the government. Also, the medicine proved effective not only in the treatment but also in the prevention of large scale infection among frontline health workers, engaged in the treatment and handling of COVID-19 patients.

For the dosage protocol of the drug, click here.

Kerala

Quarantine-Stress Management-Symptomatic Treatment was the mantra of Kerala while treating the first 3 patients of COVID-19. First, the patients were quarantined, after that, they were being given supportive medicines like Paracetamol & other drugs according to their needs. Besides this, additional support in the form of mental health was also given to them. Antiviral agents (used in HIV positive cases) were used for some confirmed symptomatic cases.

Jaipur

Doctors at Sawai Man Singh Hospital used an innovative combination of Lopinavir and Ritonavir with Oseltamivir and Chloroquine, the drugs meant for Malaria and Swine Flu. They used this combination to treat three patients with two of them Italians, recovered and discharged. Seeing the effectiveness of this medicine, the medical departments of six states, Karnataka, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh have contacted the Rajasthan medical department to know about this medicine.

Delhi

A doctor at Safdarjung Hospital said that there is no medicine yet to treat coronavirus infection and supportive treatment is done like dengue. The patient suffering from this disease is also treated on the basis of symptoms. In addition, Tamiflu was also given to patients of Corona at Safdarjung Hospital. This medicine is used in the treatment of swine flu.

How Are Different Countries Treating COVID-19?

China

At the beginning of the outbreak, China used anti-HIV drugs such as Lopinavir or Arbidor to treat patients with SARS CoV2.

Favilavir has been used to treat severe cases of COVID-19 because the use of Favilavir demonstrated encouraging profile with mild adverse reactions in coronavirus patients in trials in Shenzhen, Guangdong province.

Earlier this month, plasma extracted from the recovered patients helped in reducing the virus effect in critically ill patients.

Roche arthritis drug, Actemra is approved to treat coronavirus patients in China, however, there is no clinical trial evidence yet that the drug has been effective.

Chinese researchers are studying the use of stem cell technology in the treatment of critical patients with COVID-19.Stem cells can self-renew or multiply while maintaining the potential to develop into other types of cells. They can become cells of the blood, heart, lungs or other body parts. Four patients who were treated using stem cell therapy, were recovered and discharged.

Medical authorities in China have said that a drug called ‘favipiravir’ which is used in Japan to treat new strains of influenza have been effective in treating coronavirus patients. Patients who were given the medicine in Shenzhen turned negative for the virus after a median of 4 days after becoming positive. In addition, X-rays confirmed improvements in lung condition in about 91% of the patients who were treated with favipiravir, compared to 62% or those without the drug.

None of these drugs has yet been proved to be universally applicable to every patient battling the novel coronavirus.

United States

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved one antiviral drug remdesivir to treat hospitalized COVID-19 patients who are age 12 and older. The U.S. National Institutes of Health has recommended the corticosteroid drug, dexamethasone for people with severe COVID-19 symptoms who require supplemental oxygen or mechanical ventilation. The FDA has also granted emergency use authorization for convalescent plasma therapy to treat COVID-19 patients.

Source: Mayoclinic

Russia

Russia has approved R-Pharm’s Coronavir to treat patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 infections. Coronavir’s approval as a prescription drug is followed by the approval of another Russian COVID-19 drug, Avifavir, in May. Both are based on favipiravir, which was developed in Japan and is being widely used for viral treatments. Russia has also cleared Remdesivir, the antiviral drug to treat COVID patients after doctors used the drug to treat the former U.S. President Donald Trump.

Thailand

The doctors in Thailand have reportedly succeeded in using a combination of HIV drugs including lopinavir and ritonavir and the antiviral medication oseltamivir to treat coronavirus infected patients.

South Korea

The experts at South Korea have advised to use anti-HIV medication – Kaletra and anti-malaria drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. Kaletra includes the drugs Lopinavir and Ritonavir. They are also recommending the use of hydroxychloroquine in combination with the anti-HIV medication.

Taiwan

Taiwan has started to synthesize the Favilavir drug to treat the patients of COVID-19. Favilavir is the second antiviral drug after remdesivir which Taiwan has succeeded in synthesizing to fight the SARS CoV-2. This antiviral medication has shown some efficacy in treating the coronavirus. Also, Taiwan has provisionally approved dexamethasone to treat COVID-19 patients.

United Kingdom

Few hospitals of the UK is going to test five new drugs named as Heparin, Bemcentini, Medi3506, Calquence, Zilucoplan in the coming days in search to combat the coronavirus. These drugs were chosen from a list of 200 potential candidates and if they do not work for COVID-19, another batch will then be considered for trials.

Spain

Spain decided to continue giving hydroxychloroquine to the coronavirus patients unlike several other European countries including Italy, Belgium, France that followed the World Health Organization’s decision to pause a large trial of hydroxychloroquine due to safety concerns.

Russia

Avifavir, known generically as favipiravir has become a ray of hope for the Russians. Avifavir, the antiviral drug is the first approved drug of Russia which is going to be given from June 11 to treat COVID-19 patients said by the head of Russia’s RDIF sovereign wealth fund.